Linguistics 715
Seminar: Data manipulation for parser improvement
Autumn 2011

Course goals This seminar will focus on working with the input to and output of syntactic parsers, without necessarily dealing with internal models. That is, the focus is on the linguistic representations of data given to & read from a parser. The specific topics will thus include: various linguistic modifications on the input side (adding (grant)parent annotation, horizontal markovization, projectivization/deprojectivization), parse error detection, parse revision, parser combination, optimal representations of coordination & other phenomena, interactions with semantic role labelers, and so forth. Part of that will depend upon student interest, though there will likely be a greater emphasis placed on working with parser output.

The focus on looking at the linguistic structures of parser input/output means that: a) the types of techniques we will look at need to be very general, i.e., not parser-specific, and b) techniques will have recourse to full parses.

We will examine both constituency & dependency parsing, as many techniques can be applied to either, with a slightly greater emphasis on dependency. Although the emphasis will be on investigating a range of literature on some at times disparate topics, students will be required to develop a hands-on project by the end of the semester.

Instructor: Markus Dickinson

Office: Memorial Hall (MM) 317

Phone: 856-2535

E-mail: md7@pancakeindiana.edu (remove the food)

Office hours:

M11:30am-12:30pm
R 11:00am-12:00pm
or by appointment

Meeting time: MW, 1:00-2:15pm

Classroom: Memorial Hall (MH) 401

Course website: http://jones.ling.indiana.edu/~mdickinson/11/715/

Course notes will be posted to this website.

Credits: 3

Course prerequisites: L545 and some programming experience are required. L645 or concurrent enrollment is recommended but not strictly required.

Readings: There will be weekly readings for discussion, most of which are available online. See the schedule and bibliography at the end for the full selection and see the course requirements below.

Course requirements:

Academic Misconduct: Academic misconduct is not allowed in this course. The Indiana University Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, and Conduct (http://dsa.indiana.edu/Code/) defines academic misconduct as “any activity that tends to undermine the academic integrity of the institution . . . Academic misconduct may involve human, hard-copy, or electronic resources . . . Academic misconduct includes, but is not limited to . . . cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, interference, violation of course rules, and facilitating academic misconduct” (II. G.1-6).

Students with Disabilities: Students who need an accommodation based on the impact of a disability should contact me to arrange an appointment as soon as possible to discuss the course format, to anticipate needs, and to explore potential accommodations.

I rely on Disability Services for Students for assistance in verifying the need for accommodations and developing accommodation strategies. Students who have not previously contacted Disability Services are encouraged to do so (812-855-7578; http://www.indiana.edu/~iubdss/).

Topics

Topic

Readings




* Overview: parsing & lx. representation

Intro

* Basic CFG & dependency parsing




Parse representations   

* Dependency & constituency (conversions)

General insights: Rambow (2010); Tsarfaty and Sima’an (20082010), For evaluation: Lin (1995), English: Xia and Palmer (2001); Johansson and Nugues (2007); Choi and Palmer (2010), German: Daum et al. (2004); Kübler and Telljohann (2002), Hebrew: Goldberg and Elhadad (2009), Chinese: Xue (2007)



* Source-to-target conversions

Zhu et al. (2011); Niu et al. (2009); Jiang and Liu (2009); Smith and Eisner (2009)



* Annotation effects on parsing/evaluation

Bosco et al. (2010); Kübler et al. (2008); Kübler et al. (2006); Seddah et al. (2009); Schluter and van Genabith (2007); Dredze et al. (2007); Maier (2006); Rehbein and van Genabith (2007a,b)




* Treebank re-labeling (parent annotation, Markovization, tag splitting/merging)

Tree transformations: Johnson (1998); Belz (2001); Klein and Manning (2003); Bengoetxea and Gojenola (2009b); Schiehlen (2004); Ule (2003); Chung et al. (2010); Bengoetxea and Gojenola (2010), Incorporating morphology: Tsarfaty and Sima’an (2007); Tsarfaty (2006), Latent variables: Petrov et al. (2006); Matsuzaki et al. (2005); Titov and Henderson (2007); Gesmundo et al. (2009)



Parse input 

* Discontinuities & non-projectivities

Non-projectivities: Nilsson et al. (2007); Nivre and Nilsson (2005); Nivre et al. (2006); Hall and Novák (2005Nivre (2009)) Discontinuities: Dienes and Dubey (2003); Levy and Manning (2004); Boyd (2007); Hsu (2010)



* Incorporating rules into treebank parsers

Bick (2007); Ambati (2010); Seeker et al. (2010); Foth and Menzel (2006)




* Full-tree features for n-best parsing

Constituencies: Charniak and Johnson (2005); Collins and Koo (2005); Huang (2008); Kübler et al. (2009); Cowan and Collins (2005); Shen et al. (2003); Koo and Collins (2005); Shi (2007) Dependencies: Sangati et al. (2009); Abekawa and Okumura (2006)



* Parser bias

Goldberg and Elhadad (2010); McDonald and Nivre (2007); Nivre et al. (2010)



Parse output

* Parse combination

Combining outputs: Henderson and Brill (1999); Surdeanu and Manning (2010); Fishel and Nivre (2009); Zeman and Žabokrtský (2005); Sagae and Tsujii (2007); Sagae and Lavie (2006); Brunet-Manquant (2004); Brill and Hladká (1998); Inui and Inui (2000), Parser stacking: McDonald and Nivre (2011); Nivre and McDonald (2008); Øvrelid et al. (2009); Torres Martins et al. (2008); Bengoetxea and Gojenola (2009a); Khmylko et al. (2009)



* Parse revision

Revision methods: Attardi and Dell’Orletta (2009); Attardi and Ciaramita (2007) TBL: Foth et al. (2000); Brill (1993); Satta and Brill (1996); Campbell and Johnson (2002)



* Parse error detection & parse tree reliability

Errors: Dickinson (2010); Hara et al. (2009a,b); Yates et al. (2006) Reliability: Kawahara and Uchimoto (2008); Chen et al. (20082009); Reichart and Rappoport (2007)




Deeper annotation       (if time)

* Interaction with semantic parsing

SRL: Johansson and Nugues (2008); Yi and Palmer (2005); Punyakanok et al. (2008), Deep syntax: Frank and Semecky (2004); Uematsu and Tsujii (2009); Gildea and Hockenmaier (2003), Semantic dependencies: Che et al. (2008); Watanabe et al. (2008); Ren et al. (2009); Zeman (2009)



* Incorporating semantic features

Agirre et al. (2011); Haffari et al. (2011); Øvrelid and Nivre (2007); Ciaramita and Attardi (2007)



* Extracting deep annotation

Overview: Baldwin et al. (2007), LFG: Cahill et al. (2004); O’Donovan et al. (2005); Schluter and van Genabith (2008); Chrupała and van Genabith (2006); Boullier and Sagot (2005), CCG: Hockenmaier (2006); Hockenmaier and Steedman (2002); Bos et al. (2009), HPSG: Miyao et al. (2004); Yoshida (2005), TAG: Xia and Palmer (2010)

(Tentative) Outline of Schedule: This will change a lot, based on what topics we find to be of most interest ...




Aug. 29, 31

Intro (.pdf, 2x3.pdf) & Basic parsing (.pdf, 2x3.pdf)

Markus
Sep. 7, 12, 14

No class, I’m gone

Sep. 19, 21, 26

Annotation conversions (1: .pdf, 2x3.pdf, 2: .pdf, 2x3.pdf, 3: .pdf, 2x3.pdf, 4: .pdf, 2x3.pdf)

Markus
Sep. 28, Oct. 3

Annotation effects

Sandra
Oct. 5, 10, 12

Treebank re-labeling

Chris
Oct. 17, 19

Discontinuities & Rules

Daniel
Oct. 24, 26, 31

Parse reranking

Joe
Nov. 2, 7

Parser bias

Yuyin
Nov. 9, 14

Parse combination

Shahab
Nov. 16, 21

Parse revision

Amber
Nov. 28, 30

Parse error detection/reliability

Amber
Dec. 5, 7

Deeper annotation / Semantics

Eric/Wren
Wed., Dec. 14, 2:45-4:45pm

Project reports

All

What to do while I’m gone (Sep. 7-14):

Assignments:

LaTeX tutorial: tutorial.tgz

Disclaimer This syllabus is subject to change. All important changes will be made in writing, with ample time for adjustment.

References

   Takeshi Abekawa and Manabu Okumura. 2006. Japanese dependency parsing using co-occurrence information and a combination of case elements. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 833–840. Association for Computational Linguistics, Sydney, Australia. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P06-1105.

   Eneko Agirre, Kepa Bengoetxea, Koldo Gojenola, and Joakim Nivre. 2011. Improving dependency parsing with semantic classes. In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, pages 699–703. Association for Computational Linguistics, Portland, Oregon, USA. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P11-2123.

   Bharat Ram Ambati. 2010. Importance of linguistic constraints in statistical dependency parsing. In Proceedings of the ACL 2010 Student Research Workshop, pages 103–108. Uppsala, Sweden. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P10-3018.

   Giuseppe Attardi and Massimiliano Ciaramita. 2007. Tree revision learning for dependency parsing. In Human Language Technologies 2007: The Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics; Proceedings of the Main Conference, pages 388–395. Association for Computational Linguistics, Rochester, New York. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/N/N07/N07-1049.pdf.

   Giuseppe Attardi and Felice Dell’Orletta. 2009. Reverse revision and linear tree combination for dependency parsing. In Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The 2009 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Companion Volume: Short Papers, pages 261–264. Association for Computational Linguistics, Boulder, Colorado. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/N/N09/N09-2066.pdf.

   Timothy Baldwin, Mark Dras, Julia Hockenmaier, Tracy Holloway King, and Gertjan van Noord. 2007. The impact of deep linguistic processing on parsing technology. In Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Parsing Technologies, pages 36–38. Association for Computational Linguistics, Prague, Czech Republic. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-2205.pdf.

   Anja Belz. 2001. Optimisation of corpus-derived probabilistic grammars. In Proceedings of Corpus Linguistics 2001, pages 46–57. URL http://www.itri.brighton.ac.uk/~Anja.Belz/Publications/optimisation-of-corpus-derived-grammars-cl2001.ps.gz.

   Kepa Bengoetxea and Koldo Gojenola. 2009a. Application of feature propagation to dependency parsing. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Parsing Technologies (IWPT’09), pages 142–145. Association for Computational Linguistics, Paris, France. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W09-3822.

   Kepa Bengoetxea and Koldo Gojenola. 2009b. Exploring treebank transformations in dependency parsing. In Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2009). URL https://ixa.si.ehu.es/Ixa/Argitalpenak/Artikuluak/1248190513/publikoak/ranlp_kepa-koldo-final.pdf.

   Kepa Bengoetxea and Koldo Gojenola. 2010. Application of different techniques to dependency parsing of Basque. In Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 First Workshop on Statistical Parsing of Morphologically-Rich Languages, pages 31–39. Association for Computational Linguistics, Los Angeles, CA, USA. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W10-1404.

   Eckhard Bick. 2007. Hybrid ways to improve domain independence in an ML dependency parser. In Proceedings of the CoNLL Shared Task Session of EMNLP-CoNLL 2007, pages 1119–1123. Prague, Czech Republic. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/D/D07/D07-1120.pdf.

   Johan Bos, Cristina Bosco, and Alessandro Mazzei. 2009. Converting a dependency treebank to a categorial grammar treebank for Italian. In Proceedings of Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories (TLT-8). Milan, Italy. URL http://tlt8.unicatt.it/FullPaper/C_2.pdf.

   Cristina Bosco, Simonetta Montemagni, Alessandro Mazzei, Vincenzo Lombardo, Felice Dell’Orletta, Alessandro Lenci, Leonardo Lesmo, Giuseppe Attardi, Maria Simi, Alberto Lavelli, Johan Hall, Jens Nilsson, and Joakim Nivre. 2010. Comparing the influence of different treebank annotations on dependency parsing. In Nicoletta Calzolari (Conference Chair), Khalid Choukri, Bente Maegaard, Joseph Mariani, Jan Odijk, Stelios Piperidis, Mike Rosner, and Daniel Tapias, editors, Proceedings of the Seventh conference on International Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’10). European Language Resources Association (ELRA), Valletta, Malta. URL http://www.lrec-conf.org/proceedings/lrec2010/summaries/196.html.

   Pierre Boullier and Benoît Sagot. 2005. Efficient and robust LFG parsing: SxLFG. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Parsing Technology, pages 1–10. Association for Computational Linguistics, Vancouver, British Columbia. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W05/W05-1501.pdf.

   Adriane Boyd. 2007. Discontinuity revisited: An improved conversion to context-free representations. In Proceedings of the Linguistic Annotation Workshop, pages 41–44. Association for Computational Linguistics, Prague, Czech Republic. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-1506.pdf.

   Eric Brill. 1993. Automatic grammar induction and parsing free text: A transformation-based approach. In Proceedings of Human Language Technology (HLT), pages 237–242. Plainsboro, NJ. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology-new/H/H93/H93-1047.pdf.

   Eric Brill and Barbora Hladká. 1998. Core natural language processing technology applicable to multiple languages. the workshop 98 final report, chapter 5: The superparser. Technical report, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. URL http://www.clsp.jhu.edu/ws98/projects/nlp/report/chapter5/9805.html.

   Francis Brunet-Manquant. 2004. Syntactic parser combination for improved dependency analysis. In Vincenzo Pallotta and Amalia Todirascu, editors, COLING 2004 3rd Workshop on Robust Methods in Analysis of Natural Language Data, pages 24–31. COLING, Geneva, Switzerland. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology-new/W/W04/W04-2004.pdf.

   Aoife Cahill, Michael Burke, Ruth O’Donovan, Josef Van Genabith, and Andy Way. 2004. Long-distance dependency resolution in automatically acquired wide-coverage pcfg-based lfg approximations. In Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL’04), Main Volume, pages 319–326. Barcelona, Spain. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P04-1041.

   David Campbell and Stephen Johnson. 2002. A transformational-based learner for dependency grammars in discharge summaries. In Proceedings of the ACL-02 Workshop on Natural Language Processing in the Biomedical Domain, pages 37–44. Phildadelphia. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W02-0306.

   Eugene Charniak and Mark Johnson. 2005. Coarse-to-fine n-best parsing and maxent discriminative reranking. In Proceedings of ACL-05, pages 173–180. Ann Arbor, MI, USA. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology-new/P/P05/P05-1022.pdf.

   Wanxiang Che, Zhenghua Li, Yuxuan Hu, Yongqiang Li, Bing Qin, Ting Liu, and Sheng Li. 2008. A cascaded syntactic and semantic dependency parsing system. In CoNLL 2008: Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 238–242. Coling 2008 Organizing Committee, Manchester, England. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W08-2134.

   Wenliang Chen, Jun’ichi Kazama, Kiyotaka Uchimoto, and Kentaro Torisawa. 2009. Improving dependency parsing with subtrees from auto-parsed data. In Proceedings of EMNLP-09, pages 570–579. Singapore. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/D/D09/D09-1060.pdf.

   Wenliang Chen, Youzheng Wu, and Hitoshi Isahara. 2008. Learning reliable information for dependency parsing adaptation. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2008), pages 113–120. Coling 2008 Organizing Committee, Manchester, UK. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/C08-1015.

   Jinho D. Choi and Martha Palmer. 2010. Robust constituent-to-dependency conversion for english. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories (TLT-9), pages 55–66. Tartu, Estonia. URL http://dspace.utlib.ee/dspace/bitstream/handle/10062/15934/tlt9_submission_3.pdf?sequence=1.

   Grzegorz Chrupała and Josef van Genabith. 2006. Improving treebank-based automatic lfg induction for spanish. In Proceedings of the LFG06 Conference. URL http://www.lsv.uni-saarland.de/personalPages/gchrupala/papers/chrupala-vangenabith-2006b/paper.pdf.

   Tagyoung Chung, Matt Post, and Daniel Gildea. 2010. Factors affecting the accuracy of Korean parsing. In Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 First Workshop on Statistical Parsing of Morphologically-Rich Languages, pages 49–57. Association for Computational Linguistics, Los Angeles, CA, USA. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W10-1406.

   Massimiliano Ciaramita and Giuseppe Attardi. 2007. Dependency parsing with second-order feature maps and annotated semantic information. In Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Parsing Technologies, pages 133–143. Association for Computational Linguistics, Prague, Czech Republic. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-2217.pdf.

   Michael Collins and Terry Koo. 2005. Discriminative reranking for natural language parsing. Computational Linguistics, 31(1):25–69. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology-new/J/J05/J05-1003.pdf.

   Brooke Cowan and Michael Collins. 2005. Morphology and reranking for the statistical parsing of Spanish. In Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 795–802. Association for Computational Linguistics, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/H/H05/H05-1100.pdf.

   Michael Daum, Kilian Foth, and Wolfgang Menzel. 2004. Automatic transformation of phrase treebanks to dependency trees. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC-2004. Lisbon, Portugal. URL http://nats-www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/~menzel/papers/lrec2004.ps.gz.

   Markus Dickinson. 2010. Detecting errors in automatically-parsed dependency relations. In The 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL-10). Uppsala, Sweden. URL http://jones.ling.indiana.edu/~mdickinson/papers/dickinson10.html.

   Pétr Dienes and Amit Dubey. 2003. Deep syntactic processing by combining shallow methods. In Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 431–438. Association for Computational Linguistics, Sapporo, Japan. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P03-1055.

   Mark Dredze, John Blitzer, Partha Pratim Talukdar, Kuzman Ganchev, João Graca, and Fernando Pereira. 2007. Frustratingly hard domain adaptation for dependency parsing. In Proceedings of the CoNLL Shared Task Session of EMNLP-CoNLL 2007, pages 1051–1055. Association for Computational Linguistics, Prague, Czech Republic. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/D/D07/D07-1112.pdf.

   Mark Fishel and Joakim Nivre. 2009. Voting and stacking in data-driven dependency parsing. In Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics NODALIDA’2009, pages 219–222. Odense, Denmark. URL http://lepo.it.da.ut.ee/~fishel/doc/publ/vote-stack.nodalida09.pdf.

   Kilian Foth, Ingo Schröder, and Wolfgang Menzel. 2000. A transformation-based parsing technique with anytime properties. In Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Parsing Technologies, pages 89–100. URL http://nats-www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/~menzel/papers/iwpt00.ps.gz.

   Kilian A. Foth and Wolfgang Menzel. 2006. Hybrid parsing: Using probabilistic models as predictors for a symbolic parser. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 321–328. Association for Computational Linguistics, Sydney, Australia. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P06-1041.

   Anette Frank and Jiri Semecky. 2004. Corpus-based Induction of an LFG Syntax-Semantics Interface for Frame Semantic Processing. In Silvia Hansen-Schirra, Stefan Oepen, and Hans Uszkoreit, editors, Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Linguistically Interpreted Corpora. Geneva, Switzerland. URL http://www.cl.uni-heidelberg.de/~frank/papers/linc04-frank-semecky-new.pdf.

   Andrea Gesmundo, James Henderson, Paola Merlo, and Ivan Titov. 2009. A latent variable model of synchronous syntactic-semantic parsing for multiple languages. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2009): Shared Task, pages 37–42. Association for Computational Linguistics, Boulder, Colorado. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W09-1205.

   Daniel Gildea and Julia Hockenmaier. 2003. Identifying semantic roles using combinatory categorial grammar. In Michael Collins and Mark Steedman, editors, Proceedings of the 2003 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 57–64. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W03-1008.pdf.

   Yoav Goldberg and Michael Elhadad. 2009. Hebrew dependency parsing: Initial results. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Parsing Technologies (IWPT’09), pages 129–133. Association for Computational Linguistics, Paris, France. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W09-3819.

   Yoav Goldberg and Michael Elhadad. 2010. Inspecting the structural biases of dependency parsing algorithms. In Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning, pages 234–242. Uppsala, Sweden. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W10-2927.

   Gholamreza Haffari, Marzieh Razavi, and Anoop Sarkar. 2011. An ensemble model that combines syntactic and semantic clustering for discriminative dependency parsing. In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, pages 710–714. Association for Computational Linguistics, Portland, Oregon, USA. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P11-2125.

   Keith Hall and Václav Novák. 2005. Corrective modeling for non-projective dependency parsing. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Parsing Technology, pages 42–52. Association for Computational Linguistics, Vancouver, British Columbia. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W05/W05-1505.pdf.

   Tadayoshi Hara, Yusuke Miyao, and Jun’ichi Tsujii. 2009a. Descriptive and empirical approaches to capturing underlying dependencies among parsing errors. In Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 1162–1171. Association for Computational Linguistics, Singapore. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/D/D09/D09-1121.pdf.

   Tadayoshi Hara, Yusuke Miyao, and Jun’ichi Tsujii. 2009b. Effective analysis of causes and inter-dependencies of parsing errors. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Parsing Technologies (IWPT’09), pages 180–191. Association for Computational Linguistics, Paris, France. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W09-3828.

   John C. Henderson and Eric Brill. 1999. Exploiting diversity in natural language processing: Combining parsers. In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Very Large Corpora, pages 187–194. College Park, MD. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology-new/W/W99/W99-0623.pdf.

   Julia Hockenmaier. 2006. Creating a CCGbank and a wide-coverage CCG lexicon for German. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 505–512. Association for Computational Linguistics, Sydney, Australia. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P06-1064.

   Julia Hockenmaier and Mark Steedman. 2002. Acquiring compact lexicalized grammars from a cleaner treebank. In Proceedings of Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Las Palmas. URL http://nlp.cs.illinois.edu/HockenmaierGroup/Papers/LREC2002/HockenmaierSteedmanLREC2002.ps.

   Yu-Yin Hsu. 2010. Comparing conversions of discontinuity in pcfg parsing. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories (TLT-9), pages 103–113. Tartu, Estonia. URL http://dspace.utlib.ee/dspace/bitstream/handle/10062/15954/tlt9_submission_32.pdf?sequence=1.

   Liang Huang. 2008. Forest reranking: Discriminative parsing with non-local features. In Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT, pages 586–594. Association for Computational Linguistics, Columbus, Ohio. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P/P08/P08-1067.pdf.

   Takashi Inui and Kentaro Inui. 2000. Committee-based decision making in probabiiistic partial parsing. In Proceedings of COLING-00, pages 348–354. Saarbrücken, Germany. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology-new/C/C00/C00-1051.pdf.

   Wenbin Jiang and Qun Liu. 2009. Automatic adaptation of annotation standards for dependency parsing — using projected treebank as source corpus. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Parsing Technologies (IWPT’09), pages 25–28. Association for Computational Linguistics, Paris, France. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W09-3803.

   Richard Johansson and Pierre Nugues. 2007. Extended constituent-to-dependency conversion for english. In Proceedings of NODALIDA 2007. Tartu, Estonia. URL http://fileadmin.cs.lth.se/cs/Personal/Pierre_Nugues/Articles/nodalida2007/reg-Johansson-10.pdf.

   Richard Johansson and Pierre Nugues. 2008. The effect of syntactic representation on semantic role labeling. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2008), pages 393–400. Coling 2008 Organizing Committee, Manchester, UK. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/C08-1050.

   Mark Johnson. 1998. Pcfg models of linguistic tree representations. Computational Linguistics, 24(4):613–632. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology-new/J/J98/J98-4004.pdf.

   Daisuke Kawahara and Kiyotaka Uchimoto. 2008. Learning reliability of parses for domain adaptation of dependency parsing. In Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (IJCNLP-08), pages 709–714. Hyderabad, India. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology/I/I08/I08-2097.pdf.

   Lidia Khmylko, Kilian A. Foth, and Wolfgang Menzel. 2009. Co-parsing with competitive models. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Parsing Technologies (IWPT’09), pages 99–107. Association for Computational Linguistics, Paris, France. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W09-3816.

   Dan Klein and Christopher D. Manning. 2003. Accurate unlexicalized parsing. In Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 423–430. Association for Computational Linguistics, Sapporo, Japan. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P03-1054.

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   Sandra Kübler, Erhard Hinrichs, Wolfgang Maier, and Eva Klett. 2009. Parsing coordinations. In Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the European Chapter of the ACL (EACL 2009), pages 406–414. Association for Computational Linguistics, Athens, Greece. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/E09-1047.

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